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- user joined since August 29, 2007
397 questions asked by this user
3539 answers given by this user


When does the football season end and why is the season timed so?
In Football, history - asked by Topaz2308 - 2 answers - 10 years ago
When was the Open University formed and opened?
In University, Open, History - asked by Topaz2308 - 1 answer - 10 years ago
How many countries throughout the world is it still illegal to have an abortion?
In Abortion, health, geography - asked by Topaz2308 - 1 answer - 10 years ago
When was the first legal abortion in the UK and where did it take place?
In Abortions, health, history - asked by Topaz2308 - 1 answer - 10 years ago
If the Brit awards are all about celebrating singing talent how come most of the acts are miming (not even in time either)?
In music, singing, mime - asked by Topaz2308 - 3 answers - 10 years ago


It is on in the background but I don't really pay attention as I'm usually chatting or typing up client files so actually concentrating on watching it per day has to be about an hour.

Go To Question - asked by Topaz2308 - 0 replies - 10 years ago

Bonfires and the law
There are no specific laws governing the use of bonfires although under the Environmental Protection Act (EPA) 1990, a statutory nuisance includes "smoke, fumes or gases emitted from premises so as to be prejudicial to health or a nuisance".

If bothered by smoke, approach your neighbour and explain the problem. You might feel awkward, but they may not be aware of the distress they are causing and it will hopefully make them more considerate in the future. If this fails, contact your local council's environmental health department.

The National Society for Clean Air and Environmental Protection (NSCA) factsheet 'Pollution, Nuisance and the Law' explains the situation in more detail. If the fire is only occasional it is unlikely to be considered a nuisance in law.

Under the Highways Act 1980, anyone lighting a fire and allowing smoke to drift across a road faces a fine if it endangers traffic. Contact the police in this case.

What's wrong with bonfires?
they add to air pollution
burning garden waste produces smoke, especially if it is damp and smouldering
burning plastic, rubber or painted materials not only creates an unpleasant smell but also produces a range of poisonous compounds
your bonfire will also add to the general background level of air pollution
they cause detrimental health effects
bonfire smoke may cause problems for asthmatics, bronchitis sufferers, people with heart conditions and children
bonfires cause annoyance to neighbours
the smoke, soot, and smell from bonfires are the subject of many complaints to local councils
smoke prevents your neighbours from enjoying their gardens, opening windows or hanging washing out, and reduces visibility in the neighbourhood and on roads
any bonfire is a potential safety risk
fire can spread to fences or buildings and cans are a hazard when rubbish is burned
piles of garden waste are often used as a refuge by animals, so look out for hibernating wildlife and sleeping pets

Bonfire guidelines
If a bonfire is the best practicable option for disposing of garden waste, follow these guidelines from the National Society for Clean Air and Environmental Protection (NCSA) to avoid causing serious nuisance:

only burn dry material
never burn household rubbish, rubber tyres, or anything containing plastic, foam or paint
never use old engine oil, meths or petrol to light the fire or encourage it
avoid lighting a fire in unsuitable weather conditions - smoke hangs in the air on damp, still days and in the evening
be considerate to your neighbours - if it is windy, smoke may be blown into neighbours gardens and across roads
avoid burning when air pollution in your area is high or very high - check the weather forecast, or the air quality website


Have also linked in the desktop lawyer that states it is not a problem as long as this is not a regular occurrence or doesn't annoy anyone as the environmental health could be called and take action against you.


Supplement from 08/28/2008 11:20pm:

Should also say that make sure the field is not tinder dry when you do this because it will spread very quickly. Also make it into a pile like you would a bonfire as it will make it easier for you to manage and even a circle of stones or sand around the base will help to stop it spreading out of control.

Also it might be prudent to find out the composition of the stables from a professional first as you don't want to get half way through dismantling and burning to find out it has asbestos.

Go To Question - asked by Topaz2308 - 0 replies - 10 years ago

Quotations from Chairman Mao Zedong 900 million copies sold for 1 book.


Go To Question - asked by Topaz2308 - 0 replies - 10 years ago

Hay bales come in two sizes large or small.

Supplement from 02/16/2008 11:40pm:

Should also mention that the larger one come in round or square.

Go To Question - asked by Topaz2308 - 0 replies - 10 years ago

Haven't got definitive proof it was used at that time but it was a term that was used for many centuries for conflict between warring factions.

It was first used to describe one group who dominated another, and then vice versa.
The etymology of “terrorist” reveals at once the pliability of the term’s usage, even
during the period of the French revolution. According to The Oxford Dictionary of Word Histories, the Latin verb terrer, which means to frighten has “given rise to several English words. Terror is from Old French terrour, from Latin terror, a base shared by terrorist dating from the late 18th century from French terroriste. The word was
originally applied to supporters of the Jacobins in the French Revolution, who advocated repression and violence in pursuit of democracy and equality” (508). For even as power changed hands, “under a reconstituted Committee of Public Safety (1794) and by the
White Terror,” it was reported that “many former terrorists were executed” (World Encyclopedia). This pattern of terrorism breeding more terrorism recurs throughout history. It seems significant that the term was first used to describe a revolution born from the masses-- as if the term terrorist is emblazoned with special significance within the Euro-centric socio-cultural memory. Are there collective memories that make the dominant class shudder every time the word terrorist is dropped--its signification and meaning tied to images of the bloodthirsty masses pushing the aristocracy towards the
guillotines? Perhaps this nascent image undercuts all other images of terror, from 9/11 to lynching, from the bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building to the Haymarket rebellion, from the holocaust to the Kent State massacre.

Go To Question - asked by Topaz2308 - 0 replies - 10 years ago